Videoreihe – Medical Engineering

Medical Engineering- Teil 1: Medical Imaging Systems - Modalities 1

In this lecture video, we introduce the topic of the course and basic organisational details. This is followed by an introduction to first modalities ranging from endoscopy to computed tomography. The video is augmented with several application examples from the clinic.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 2: Medical Imaging Systems - Modalities 2

In this second part on modalities we highlight magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging, and ultrasound. In the end, we show how each modality is dedicated to a specific purpose and how they enable different diagnostic analyses.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 3: System Theory - Introduction to Signals and Systems

In this video, we introduce system theory and signals and systems using simple examples and animations.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 4: System Theory - Introduction to Fourier Series and Transform

In this video, we introduce the Fourier Series and use it to represent periodic functions in terms of sine and cosine waves. In order to move to arbitrary functions, we extend the period to infinity and introduce the Fourier Transform.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 5: System Theory - Introduction to Convolution

In this video, we introduce the concept of convolution and associate it with the Fourier transform.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 6: System Theory - Introduction to Sampling and Quantization

In this video, we discuss analogue digital conversion and why sampling is so important. We introduce the Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem and learn which sampling rates are applicable for which purposes.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 7: Image Processing 1

In this video, we introduce image processing, digital images, simple processing methods up to convolution and 2D Fourier transform.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 8: Image Processing 2

In this video, we discuss non-linear image processing methods raging from the median filter over segmentation to morphological operations.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 9: Endoscopy 1

In this video, we introduce the fundamental concepts of endoscopy, the camera, the optical paths, the tools, and a first surgical application.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 10: Endoscopy 2

In this video, we look at advanced applications of endoscopy from 3D endoscopes to robotic surgery.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 11: Microscopy 1


In this video, we introduce the basics of optics to understand the thin-lens model and the compound microscope.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 12: Microscopy 2

In this video, we discuss contrast mechanisms in microscopy and the physical limits of light that limit its resolution.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 13: Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1

In this video, we introduce the fundamental principles of magnetic resonance imaging.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 14: Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2

In this video, we introduce the fundamental principles of magnetic resonance imaging. This part explains the concepts of slice encoding, phase encoding, and how to actually form an image using the magnetic resonance effect.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 15: X-ray Generation

In this video, we look at a short history of X-rays, their generation, static and rotating anodes, properties of X-ray Spectra, and the efficiency of X-ray Sources.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 16: X-ray Photon-Matter Interaction

In this video, we understand what photons are actually doing inside of the body and hIn this video, we understand what photons are actually doing inside of the body and how their interact with different bodily tissues.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 17: X-ray Detection

In this video, we describe image intensifiers and flat-panel detectors for x-ray imaging. We also look into the noise properties of X-rays and some applications.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 18: Computed Tomography - Concept

In this video, we introduce the idea of how integral images can be used to reconstruct the original object information. We lift the projection process from 1-D lines to 2-D planes and understand that projection images share Fourier coefficients with the Fourier space of the slice to be reconstructed.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 19: Computed Tomography - Reconstruction

In this video, we explain the fundamental ideas of CT reconstruction. The first part deals with analytic reconstruction and derives the concept of filtered back-projection. In the second part, we look into algebraic approaches that find solutions only by considering discrete methods. Finally, we discuss the different acquisition geometries and how the actual scanning can be performed much faster.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 20: CT Resolution, Noise & Artifacts

In this video, we look into how to determine the resolution of a CT system. Furthermore, we discuss noise, other artifacts, and their origins.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 21: Spectral CT

In this video, we look into the idea of spectra CT and how it can be possibly measured with different hardware setups.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 22: Phase Contrast Imaging

In this video, we explore the wave characteristics of x-rays and look into absorption, phase contrast, and dark-field imaging starting from Young’s Double Slit Experiment and all the steps in between towards grating-based x-ray interferometry.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 23: Emission Tomography

In this video, we explore the tracer principle that allows using radioactive isotopes to image metabolism in nuclear medicine. In this video, we introduce the working principles of Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 24: Ultrasound

In this video, we introduce ultrasound as an imaging modality. We explain the sound plane waves that are used here and how they are transported inside the body. Finally, we discuss the different acquisition modes from A-Scans to B-Scan plus motion and doppler modes.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Medical Engineering- Teil 25: Optical Coherence Tomography

In this video, we look into the last modality that we discuss in this course: Optical Coherence Tomography. It enables visualization of the background of the eye in vivo and offers a resolution close to the one of microscopy. The measurement is based on interferometry and uses light again as a wave.

Lehrende(r)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier

Sprache
Englisch

Einrichtung
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg